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Clouds Of Water Vapour Detected Just 7 Light-Years Away


Science & Tech  (tags: space, research, science, nasa, WISE, water, brown dwarf, discovery, astronomy )

Michael
- 24 days ago - iflscience.com
Water is essential for life as we know it, so it's particularly exciting to hear that astronomers have recently discovered a brown dwarf about 7 light years away that could yield the first direct evidence of water clouds outside of our solar system.



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Michael O. (172)
Tuesday August 26, 2014, 6:38 pm
By Lisa Winter

The study was led by Jacqueline Faherty of the Carnegie Institution for Science and the paper has been published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters.

Brown dwarfs are essentially failed stars. During their formation, they do not become massive enough for energy-producing nuclear fusion to occur in the core. Without that fuel, they cool down significantly and become less luminous. The discovery of the coolest brown dwarf on record was announced back in April after it had been imaged by NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The brown dwarf, WISE J085510.83–071442.5 (W 0855), has an average temperature of -48 and -13°C (-55 and 8°F) is the fourth nearest star to our own Sun at about 7.3 light-years away.

Directly imaging dim objects like W 0855 can be difficult, as the glare from other stars is typically too bright and washes out most of the detail. Many exoplanets are detected when they transit the star, and data about its composition are extrapolated based on the amount of light it obscures. Fortunately, W 0855 is out far enough on its own that it can be imaged directly without interference from nearby stars.

Faherty’s team made follow-up observations using the Magellan Baade telescope in Chile, which operates with optical and near-infrared wavelengths. The 151 images obtained from the study yielded data that W 0855 appears to have an atmosphere with partial (50%) cloud cover. Computer models indicate that the most likely scenario right now is that the clouds are a mixture of sulfide and water ice.

Water clouds are fairly common within our solar system, though they cannot be directly observed on planets past Mars due to atmospheric conditions on each respective planet. While atmospheric water vapor has been detected outside the solar system, water in clouds has not. W 0855 also opens up the question as to how common it is to have partly cloudy conditions, similar to Earth, or if total cloud cover, like Venus, is the norm.

Unfortunately, it is going to be a while before the composition of W 0855’s clouds can be confirmed. Because it is so dim, the brown dwarf will need to be imaged deeper at near-infrared wavelengths. The upcoming James Webb Space Telescope will be perfectly equipped to do just that, but it is not scheduled to launch until 2018.
 

Mike H. (221)
Tuesday August 26, 2014, 8:56 pm
Great send some over
 

Natasha Salgado (520)
Wednesday August 27, 2014, 4:34 am
WOW what an incredible find--thx Michael
 

Robert O. (12)
Wednesday August 27, 2014, 9:43 am
Amazing. Thanks Michael.
 

Aaron Bouchard (130)
Wednesday August 27, 2014, 11:05 am
noted thanks
 

Birgit W. (144)
Wednesday August 27, 2014, 12:31 pm
Interesting, thanks for sharing.
 

Lois Jordan (55)
Wednesday August 27, 2014, 2:59 pm
Noted. Thanks so much for posting, Michael. Great info....although I guess I will have to wait a few years for some additional answers....
 

Roger Garin-michaud (62)
Wednesday August 27, 2014, 3:57 pm
noted, thanks
 

Kathleen Mireault (52)
Wednesday August 27, 2014, 6:53 pm
Noted! Thanks for sharing, Michael. Wicked cool article!
 

Nelson Baker (0)
Wednesday August 27, 2014, 7:39 pm
Noted. Very interesting. Thank you.
 

Nimue P. (243)
Thursday August 28, 2014, 2:34 am
Cool :)
 

Bob P. (427)
Thursday August 28, 2014, 11:27 am
interesting...thanks Micheal
 
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