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anonymous  June 24, 2011 7:14 AM

The Druids
Although since Christian times Druids have been identified as wizards and soothsayers, in pre-Christian Celtic society they formed an intellectual class comprising philosophers, judges, educators, historians, doctors, seers, astronomers, and astrologers. The earliest surviving Classical references to Druids date to the 2nd century B.C.

The word "Druidae" is of Celtic origin. The Roman writer Pliny the Elder (Gaius Plinius Secundus, 23/24-79 A.D.) believed it to be a cognate with the Greek work "drus," meaning "an oak." "Dru-wid" combines the word roots "oak" and "knowledge" ("wid" means "to know" or "to see" - as in the Sanskrit "vid"). The oak (together with the rowan and hazel) was an important sacred tree to the Druids. In the Celtic social system, Druid was a title given to learned men and women possessing "oak knowledge" (or "oak wisdom").

Some scholars have argued that Druids originally belonged to a pre-Celtic ('non-Aryan') population in Britain and Ireland (from where they spread to Gaul), noting that there is no trace of Druidism among Celts elsewhere - in Cisalpine Italy, Spain, or Galatia (modern Turkey). Others, however, believe that Druids were an indigenous Celtic intelligentsia to be found among all Celtic peoples, but were known by other names.

With the revival of interest in the Druids in later times, the question of what they looked like has been largely a matter of imagination. Early representations tended to show them dressed in vaguely classical garb. Aylett Sammes, in his "Britannia Antiqua Illustrata" (1676), shows a Druid barefoot dressed in a knee-length tunic and a hooded cloak. He holds a staff in one hand and in the other a book and a sprig of mistletoe. A bag or scrip hangs from his belt.

A fanciful image of a Druid (Plate from Aylett Sammes, "Britannia Antiqua Illustrata", 1676)

Sammes's drawing was subsequently copied and modified by William Stukeley who shortened his beard, removed the mistletoe, turned the bag at his side into a sort of bottle or gourd, and placed an axe-head in his belt.

Besides observing that the name 'Druid' is derived from "oak", it was Pliny the Elder, in his "Naturalis Historia" (XVI, 95), who associates the Druids with mistletoe and oak groves: "The Druids...hold nothing more sacred than the mistletoe and the tree on which it grows provided it is an oak. They choose the oak to form groves, and they do not perform any religious rites without its foliage..." Pliny also describes how the Druids used a "gold pruning hook" or "sickle" to gather the mistletoe.

Another fanciful image of a Druid (Plate from William Stukeley, "Stonehenge, a Temple Restored to the British Druids", 1740)

"Anything growing on those trees [oaks] they regard as sent from heaven and a sign that this tree has been chosen by the gods themselves. Mistletoe is, however, very rarely found, and when found, it is gathered with great ceremony and especially on the sixth day of the moon... They prepare a ritual sacrifice and feast under the tree, and lead up two white bulls whose horns are bound for the first time on this occasion. A priest attired in a white vestment ascends the tree and with a golden pruning hook cuts the mistletoe which is caught in a white cloth. Then next they sacrifice the victims praying that the gods will make their gifts propitious to those to whom they have given it. They believe that if given in drink the mistletoe will give fecundity to any barren animal, and that it is predominant against all poisons."

A nineteenth-century painting by by La Roche shows a Druidess holding both the sickle and a sprig of mistletoe.

Druids and Stone Circles
It was John Aubrey, writing in the 17th century, who first thought it a "probability" that stone circles, such as Stonehenge, "were Temples of the Druids" and called his text on stone circles the "Templa Druidum". This idea was picked up by William Stukeley, in the early 18th century, who subtitled his first book, Stonehenge, published in 1740, "a Temple Restored to the BritishDruids, and his second, on Avebury, published in 1743, "a Temple of the British Druids." Although later, in the 19th century, Sir John Lubbock (1834-1
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 April 08, 2011 3:51 PM

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anonymous  May 31, 2010 4:48 PM

of the

According to legend, the mystical Menehune-shy forest dwellers, were credited as master builders capable of completeing major projects in a single night. The Alekoko Fishpond and the Menehune Ditch, a aquaduct that funnels water for irrigation from the Waimea River, were both attributed to their over night efforts. According to legend, the menehune worked at night so as not to be seen by others, cutting, transporting, and fitting stones for their projects in a fireman's bucket brigade. If they were discovered their work would have been abandoned. Luckily for the Hawaiians they served, the menehune were exceptionally good at remaining unnoticed.

 The menehune favor Kauai's deep forests, emerging to work only at night so as not to be seen.The Menehune Ditch,
a row of hewn stones along the inner side of the road is a remnant of one wall of an anicent water course which is said to be made by the Menehunes.

Today, scholars spectulate that the menehune may not have been an imaginary race at all, but rather the decendants of the first wave of settlers who came to Hawaii from the Marquesas sometime around the sixth century. The menehune legends come from later settlers who reached Hawaii six or seven hundred years later from the Islands of Tahiti. Scholars have concluded that this second wave of immigrants may have defeated the descendants of the original Marquesans, driving them north from the Big Island to Kauai, where they made their last stand. Only later did they emerge in their elfin guise. Linguistic support for the explanation comes from the Tahitian home islands where the word manahune derisively refer to a class of workers and slaves.

Whatever their origins, the menehune have emerged from the past as playful elves two or three feet tall, pot-bellied, hairy, and muscular, with bushy eyebrows over large eyes and a short nose with a trace of the mischievousness of their European counterparts.

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Skeletons in the Closet February 26, 2010 9:41 AM

In the 1970's Mary Leakey found a set of modern footprints in volcanic ash that was dated to 3 millions years old. In 1966, a spear point was found embedded in the jaw of a prehistoric animal's jaw (dated 60,000 years old.

Most mysterious of all is a find in central Texas. An ancient iron hammer was found embedded in the same strata as dinosaur footprints. part of the wooden handle is still attached part was still embedded in stone. The chemical composition of the iron confounded scientists. The chemical composition was 96.6% iron, 0.74% sulfur, and 2.6% metallic chlorine. The paper I read indicated that this was a very exotic blend.

Part of the wooden handle had coalified, indicating great age, and conditions of high temperature and pressure. The hammer was placed there at the time the rock hardened.

Carved bones, chalk, stones, together with what would appear to be greatly ornamented "coins," have been brought up from great depths during well-drilling operations.

A strange, imprinted slab was found in a coal mine. The artifact was decorated with diamond-shaped squares with the face of an old man in each ''box."

In another coal-mine discovery, miners found smooth, polished concrete blocks which formed a solid wall. According to one miner's testimony. he chipped one block open only to find the standard mixture of sand and cement that makes up most typical building blocks of today.

  • A gold necklace was found embedded in a lump of coal.
  • A metal spike was discovered in a silver mine in Peru.
  • An iron implement was found in a Scottish coal bed. Estimated to be millions of years older than man is believed to have existed.
  • A metal, bell-shaped vessel, inlaid with a silver floral design was blasted out of solid rock near Dorchester, Massachusetts.

Two hypotheses may explain the presence of these perplexing artifacts, these "erratics": 1) that they were manufactured by an advanced civilization on Earth which, due either to natural or technological catastrophe, was destroyed before our world's own genesis; 2) that they are vestiges of a highly technological civilization of extraterrestrial origin, which visited this planet millions of years ago, leaving behind various artifacts. The true "reality" can be far more spectacular than what we can conjecture, (inspite of Occam's Razor).

This present volume shall emphasize the former theory. It will show that erratics do not appear to be the products of a "super civilization'' capable of interplanetary flight. These objects are generally of a workmanship which ranges in technical sophistication from what we would judge by our orthodox historical yardstick as comparable to that possessed by the societies of Greece or Rome or to that level achieved by our own twentieth-century technology.

Even if a highly advanced extraterrestrial race might have visited this planet in prehistoric times, it seems unlikely such common, everyday items as nails, necklaces, buckles and vases would have been carried aboard a spacecraft deposited in such widely separated areas; for erratics have been found in North and South America, Great Britain, the whole of Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Mideast.

The question of just what exactly may have happened to these worlds before our own is one that invites a great deal of highly speculative thinking. In spite of the general unpopularity of catastrophism, there does seem to be a number of recently discovered "proofs" of ancient cataclysmic changes in the Earth's crust which may account for the nearly total disappearance of these prehistoric worlds. Geological evidence indicates that these changes were both sudden and drastic might have completely overwhelmed and destroyed the early inhabitants and their cultures.

Perhaps the most potentially mind-boggling evidence of an advanced prehistoric technology that might have blown its parent-culture away is to be found in those sites which ostensibly bear mute evidence of pre-Genesis nuclear reactions.

Earlier I mentioned the "fused green glass" found deep in the strata of an archaeological dig. The statement that such material had been known previously only at nuclear testing sites (where the sand had melted to form the substance) proved to be an unsettling thought (and a sci-fi hack). Throughout the planet, in the same geologic strata, there unequivocally exists areas which scientists state are strongly suggestive of nuclear reactions. Could it be possible that these sites provide evidence of a prehistoric nuclear war?

"Fused green glass" has been found in such sites as Pierrelatte in Gabon, Africa; the Euphrates Valley; the Sahara Desert; the Gobi Desert; Iraq; the Mojave Desert; Scotland; the Old and Middle Kingdoms of Egypt; and south-central Turkey. At the same time, scientists have found a number of uranium deposits that appear to have been mined or depleted in antiquity.

But before we confront the grim specter of nuclear annihilation in prehistoric times and begin to worry about history repeating itself in some kind of cyclic purgation, let us attempt to meet head on the mystery of mankind's genesis. It would seem only proper, after all, to resolve its beginnings before dealing with its ending.

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 February 11, 2010 2:29 PM

Worlds before our own

by Brad Steiger

 It is rather amazing that such sophisticated people, as we judge ourselves to be, do not even know who we are. And it becomes rather dismaying to discover that there is a great deal of suppressed, ignored, and misplaced prehistorical cultural evidence that would alter the established interpretations of human origins and provide us with a much clearer definition of what it means to be human.

Archaeologists, anthropologists, and various academicians who play the "origins of Man" game, reluctantly and only occasionally acknowledge instances where unique skeletal and cultural evidence from the prehistoric record suddenly appear long before they should -- and in places where they should not. These irritating artifacts destroy the orderly evolutionary line that academia has for so long presented to the public. Consequently, such data has been largely left buried in site reports, forgotten storage rooms, and dusty archives.

Although the Leakeys, that eminent family of anthropologists, have offered dramatic new evidence that the "homo" lineage goes back at least three million years, the academic consensus holds that an ancestor of modern man evolved about one million years ago. Homo Sapiens, the "thinking man," our own species... became the dominant planetary life form on a worldwide basis about 40,000 years ago.

It is difficult enough to explain the sudden appearance or influx of Homo Sapiens at that time, but it is an even more complex question to ponder why Neanderthal and Cro-Magnon man correspondingly disappeared. And just when Richard Leakey is adding to a growing body of evidence that mankind developed in Africa, a Hungarian excavation surrenders a Homo Sapiens skull fragment in a context more than 600,000 years out of alignment with the accepted calendar of man's migrations across the planet.

The Creationist may present an extreme point of view when he maintains that the world is roughly only 6,000 years old and that man himself is only a few days younger, but what happens to evolution when there are such sites as the one in Australia, which yielded Homo Sapiens (modern man), Homo erectus (our million-year-old ancestor), and Neanderthal (our Stone Age cousin) in what appears to be a contemporaneous environment? Then there is the Tabun site where Homo Sapiens fragments were found in strata below (which means older than) classic Neanderthal bones. This is but one of several digs that has produced evidence of modern man before what is accepted as one of his predecessors.

Somewhere, in what would appear to be a biological and cultural free-for-all, there must lie the answer to that most important question: Who are we?

But just as we are trying our best to fit skeletal fragments together in a manner that will be found acceptable to what we believe we know about our origins, pre-Adamite footprints are being found, which, if they are what they appear to be, will make total shambles of our accepted evolutionary calendar.

In Pershing County, Nevada, a shoe print was found in Triassic limestone, strata indicative of 400 million years, in which the fossilized evidence clearly revealed finely wrought double-stitching in the seams.

Early in 1975, Dr. Stanley Rhine of the University of New Mexico announced his discovery of human-like footprints in strata indicative of 40 million years old.

A few months before, a similar find was made in Kenton, Oklahoma. At almost the same time, a similar discovery was revealed in north-central Wisconsin.

If man lived at the same time as the dinosaurs, he might have been a king-sized fellow to better confront the gigantic reptiles. Skeletal remains of surprisingly large human beings have been discovered all over the Americas, from Minnesota to Nicaragua. The skeletons average in size from seven to over eight feet tall -- and none of them are carved "Cardiff" hoaxes.

In Death Valley, there is ample fossil and skeletal evidence to indicate that the desolate area was once a tropical Garden of Eden where a race of giants lived and fed themselves with palatable foods taken from the local lakes and forests.

To speak of a race of prehistoric giants in what is now the desert sands of Death Valley is simultaneously to refute the doctrine which decrees that man is a relative newcomer to the North and South American continents. While on the one hand, new radiocarbon dates demonstrate that the Bering Land Bridge and Cordilleran Ice Corridor were not passable until 9,000 years ago, an increasing amount of physical evidence indicates that man was surely in this hemisphere much earlier than that recent date.

For one thing, corn, a New World contribution to the pantries, is said to be, at 9000 years, our oldest domesticated seed crop. Some earliest agriculturist had to be on this continent more than 9000 years ago in order to domesticate the seed. Conclusive proof that such ancient farmers did exist was offered when a Humble Oil Company drill brought up Mexican corn pollen that was more than 80,000 years old.

The anomalous Indian blood serration and dentition and the geographic distribution of the American Indian demands an impossible genetic time scale in which to transform Asiatic immigrant to distinctive New World inhabitant. Even if we attempt to keep some kind of peace with the accepted theories of New World habitation, we must grant more evolution in 40,000 years in North America than that which took place in more than one million years in Europe, Africa, and Asia.

We might rest our case by providing as evidence the 50,000 year-old skulls found in California, which are clearly those of American Indians, but we are left with another mystery. A 140,000 year old American Indian type skull (v

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 January 07, 2010 1:05 PM

Flat, Hollow or Inside-Out?

One of the oldest earth mysteries was 'what shape is it?' Eratosthenes, in 240 BC, was able to prove the sphericity of the earth and estimate its size to a reasonable margin of error, by comparing the angle of the sun at two distant locations simultaneously. Aristotle knew that the earth was spherical, citing the horizon, the Earth's circular shadow during lunar eclipses, and other phenomena.

Many educated people knew about the spherical earth from late antiquity on. However, most Europeans believed that the earth was flat until the explorations of the renaissance. The Biblical concept of an earth with four corners (e.g. Isa 11:12) was taken very literally. Note that the word used here, kanaf, is a word used for corners of buildings, cloth, bedsheets, and so on. To confuse matters somewhat, the earth is also described in Isaiah as being circular (Isa 40:22), specifically it says the circle of the earth. Some modern inerrantists point to this as 'evidence' that the earth is round, although Isaiah seems to imply that it is disk-shaped here. The Hebrew word used here is khug, which unambiguously means circle, not sphere. It is related to a root khagag, which means to dance in a circle, or a sacred procession which moves in a circle. Square? Circular? it's enough to make your head spin...

In the late 19th century a number of alternative theories of the shape of the earth were proposed, flat, hollow and inside-out. By the time the poles had been reached in the early 20th century, the time for these theories had passed. Today, some Biblical inerrantists still believe that the Earth is flat.

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 January 05, 2010 11:57 AM

Earth-Sized World Could Lurk in Outer Solar System
By Jeremy Hsu
Special to
posted: 04 January 2010
07:03 am ET

version of Mars or Earth at best, a most unsuitable home for life. And it would not be alone.

"When the solar system's story is finally written, it's much more likely that it will have closer to 900 planets rather than the nine that we grew up with," said Alan Stern, a planetary scientist at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in Boulder, Colo.

Just a handful of those potential discoveries might reach the size of Earth, compared to a swarm of Pluto-sized bodies that Stern and others expect to find.

Each object – be it termed a planet, dwarf planet or otherwise – would serve as a frozen time capsule that could reveal much about the early evolution of the solar system. It could even force scientists to once again rethink the definition of a planet, following the controversial downgrading of Pluto to a dwarf planet.

Beyond the belt

Pluto's downfall came in part because astronomers discovered a number of smaller planetary objects in the outer solar system. Dwarf planets such as Eris occupy a cluttered, icy region beyond Neptune known as the Kuiper Belt. But a planet the size of Mars or Earth has not turned up at such range.

"For the Kuiper Belt we can already say there is nothing Earth or Mars sized, as its dynamical effects would be easily seen," said Mike Brown, an astronomer at Caltech who led teams that discovered Eris (and nicknamed it "Xena" at first) and other dwarf planets.

One of Brown's past dwarf planet discoveries, Sedna, occupies a strange elliptical orbit between the Kuiper Belt and the more distant Oort Cloud — a possible sign of the gravitational influence of another world as big as Earth, one astronomer proposed. But Brown suspects that such a large object would have been spotted already.

Brown and Stern say that the Oort Cloud represents a more likely prospect for worlds the size of Mars or Earth. The Oort Cloud surrounds our solar system with billions of icy bodies at distances as far out as 50,000 times the distance between the sun and Earth.

"Once you go beyond the Kuiper Belt, to the Sedna region or the Oort Cloud, you can always hide things by putting them farther away," Brown told

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 December 29, 2009 2:11 PM

Coincidences? You decide!

Physicists have increasingly come to examine the amazing coincidences of our universe and to consider the possibility that it may be rather perfectly designed for the emergence of conscious life. This is not evidence of intelligent design; it merely is a statement that conscious life is necessary for the universe to exist (through the quantum-mechanical function of collapsing the wave function) - or that the emergence of conscious life is the goal of the universe.

None of these principles presuppose an intelligent creator, as the old Thomistic theological arguments vis-a-vis 'argument by design' did. But they do suggest the possibility of intelligent control over the universe's unfolding, or, more heretically, its self-unfolding toward greater complexity.

So what are these striking cosmic coincidences? One is that the electric charge of the proton and electron are exactly equal and opposite, despite their radically different masses. If this were not the case, everything in the universe would explode.

Our sun would not exist if:

1) the neutron did not outweigh the proton by a fraction of a percent or 2) the strong nuclear force were not strong enough to hold the deuteron together, but not so strong as to make it unstable.

In fact, nothing would exist if the Big Bang did not

1) have a critical density which prevented recollapse 2) have a perfectly smooth and uniform temperature or 3) generate a slightly greater amount of matter than antimatter.

We are also fortunate that space has only three (manifested) dimensions - otherwise nervous system activity and blood circulation would be impossible, and planets would not orbit their stars stably. And if it were not for the nuclear resonances peculiar to Red Giant Stars, the universe would consist solely of hydrogen and helium, and contain no other organic elements. Strangely, there is an almost remarkable matching between the sun's temperature and the absorptive frequencies of chlorophyll in green plants.

There are other coincidences advantageous to life in the cosmos. The "shape" of the cosmos, known as O to astronomers, would be hyperbolic (4-dimensionally so) if omega was greater than 1, and would soon reach entropic heat death; it would be parabolic if omega was less than 1, and eventually recollapse into a Big Stop. But current data suggests that O is almost exactly equal to 1, perhaps due to the mysterious "missing mass" which may or not be neutrino-filled "dark matter." Though it seems trivial, the stars are far apart enough that their gravitation does not preclude the stability of solar systems. On our own planet, we are lucky that water possesses some unique properties - its solution of substances, high heat of vaporization, expansion in solid state, and peculiar crystalline molecular structure make conditions here fortuitous for the emergence of life - and is abundant on a planet which might be barren like its neighbors were it to be a little closer or further from the sun.

Many of the constants of the cosmos - the gravitational constant, Planck's constant, the mass ratio of hadrons to leptons - almost appear to some physicists to be "fine-tuned." This led the famed astronomer Sir James Jeans to surmise that "the universe seems to be more like a great thought than a machine."

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Healing Stones August 14, 2009 10:51 AM

Over the centuries, much folklore has attached itself to megalithic sites in Britain. There is considerable evidence indicating that a stone cult existed in the prehistoric past which Christianity was only partially successful in suppressing. The very necessity of the numerous edicts issued by the church Councils in 5th, 6th, and 8th centuries C.E. against all pagan cults connected with springs and wells, trees, and stones (which no doubt included megalithic standing stones) is indicative of their persistence. According to Leslie Grinsell in his book Folklore of Prehistoric Britain (1976), in the late 9th century C.E., the Council of Nantes in France condemned the veneration of stones. Various decrees not only prohibited the worship of stones but also declared guilty of sacrilege anyone who neglected to destroy them.

It is clear, however, that standing stones continued to be venerated throughout the medieval period and even later. In 1410, according to the Hereford Cathedral Registers, the Bishop of Hereford issued a proclamation forbidding the worship of the stone and well at Turnastone in Herefordshire. It would appear that one of the most popular reasons for venerating standing stones was the belief in their ability to cure illnesses and other ailments. Anglo-Saxon laws were sometimes directed specifically against people who sought cures at stones. In his account of Stonehenge, written in the 12th century, Geoffrey of Monmouth notes that "in these stones is a mystery, and a healing virtue against many ailments." At Stonehenge, the stones were washed and the water poured into baths in which the sick then bathed. Healing properties continued to be attributed to the stones at Stonehenge in the 17th and 18th centuries.

It has been suggested that the association of these stones with healing may have come about through the confusion of "heal" and "heel", with both words possibly a corruption of the name Helios, the Greek name for "sun" and the sun god. That numerous megalithic sites, standing stones, and stone circles have astronomical associations has been convincingly demonstrated by Alexander Thom and, in the case of Stonehenge in particular, by Sir Norman Lockyer, Gerald Hawkins, and Fred Hoyle. The so-called "Heel Stone" at Stonehenge should properly be called the Helios Stone, or sun-stone, over which the sun rose at the summer solstice.

Healing properties were especially associated with stones with holes in them. The most famous example is Men-an-Tol, also known as the Crick Stone, near Madron in Cornwall. According to an 18th-century source, sufferers from pains in the back and limbs were cured after crawling through the hole. Also, children suffering from rickets (a disease of infancy and childhood characterized by defective bone growth caused by a lack of vitamin D in the body) or a 'crick in the neck' would be cured after being passed three or nine times through the hole, usually against the sun (widdershins). For the cure to work, it was important that boys were passed from a woman to a man, and girls from a man to a woman.

A similar practice was performed at the Tolvan Stone, also in Cornwall. Here the ceremony involved passing the child nine times through the hole alternately from one side to the other. In the 19th-century engraving illustrated here can be seen a woman about to pass a baby through the hole to a person on the other side. It was essential to the cure that the child should emerge on the ninth passing through the hole on the side of the stone where there was a little grassy mound on which the child should be set to sleep with a sixpence under his or her head.

Folklore has attributed similar healing properties to the Long Stone in the Parish of Minchinhampton in Gloucestershire. Known locally as the "holey stone", this slab of oolitic limestone stands nearly 8 feet high with a thickness of about 18 inches. Believed to be the last surviving fragment of a long barrow chamber, the stone has two holes in it through the larger of which mothers would pass their children to cure them of whooping cough or rickets. Folklore also tells that the Long Stone runs around the field it is in when it hears the town clock in nearby Minchinhampton strike midnight.

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anonymous  May 15, 2009 9:00 AM

The Bermuda Triangle is a triangular area of water going north up the US eastern seaboard, south west into the Caribbean and east as far as the Azores. It is alleged that ships and planes disappear mysteriously in this area.
It was first mentioned in articles in the early 1950s, with Fate Magazine joining in. It became world famous following books by Vincent Gaddis and Charles Berlitz.

 The area is the busiest shipping area in the world.

So is it expected that 1,000+ ships and planes could disappear? Lawrence David Kusche argued, in 1975, that disappearances are not greater, the numbers exaggerated by sloppy research.
Well publicised disappearances – such as Flight 19, where a training wing of fighters disappeared in Dec 1945, followed by the plane sent to find them – added to the mystery. The USS Cyclops disappeared in 1918, taking 300 crew with her.

There are many theories.

They include UFO activity, leftover tech from Atlantis and the tormented souls of black slaves thrown overboard. Ivan Sanderson suggested magnetic vortices around the world where warm and cold air meet.
Gas hydrates on the seabed could also play a part, releasing methane in large quantities. Rising to the surface, water would go frothy, buoyancy would fail and a boat would sink. Rising into the air, methane could ignite a plane engine. Wreckage hits the bottom, water disturbance eases and silt covers the evidence.

There are survivors.

They speak of faulty compasses, equipment malfunction, loss of horizon, banks of fog and more. But all these events are common. What could be unusual is congregation leading to a single event.
We all experience such congregations. They are called coincidence. They have inevitability, and coincidences build upon coincidence. So could it be possible that such coincidences could coincidentally happen in a specific location?

 The Bermuda Triangle could be statistically inevitable to occur.

But coincidences often have a helping hand from the human mind. Consider: the triangle is a media creation. Disappearances may have happened before the 1950s, but they had no meaning in terms of a mystery.
Now they do. And like a curse, knowing you are in the area could have an effect upon behaviour. Innocuously, it makes you give meaning to a normal event and relate it to the mystery. And in deadly ways, it could affect your reaction to such an event, making disaster inevitable.
The Bermuda Triangle could be vital to understanding the nature of disaster. Often, we describe disasters through human error or congregation of events leading to the disaster. But as in the above idea, it could be coincidence and feelings of inevitability they produce that lead to disaster.
In chaos theory we know of the butterfly’s wings causing a hurricane. A tiny event can build up to cataclysm. Maybe it is time to forget ridiculing the Bermuda Triangle and see it as an opportunity to study processes that could lie behind ALL disasters.

© Anthony North, March 2009

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anonymous  May 06, 2009 1:44 PM

rat-eating pitcher plant 

Nepenthes tenax - Creptomundo Rat Eating Plants

A rare new species of plant that eats small rats has been discovered at the tip of Cape York.

Pitcher plants, otherwise known as flesh-eating plants, grow throughout Cape York but now a new, larger species that grows like a vine has been discovered.

The new species has been called “Tenax”.

James Cook University ecologist Charles Clarke and a colleague found the new species at a swamp near the Jardine River, but exactly where is a secret.

“They are quite vulnerable,” he said.

“They are only found in a few small areas and if we broadcast the location then there are people out there who would take advantage of that.

“There’s a lot of interest in pitcher plants from Australia, even from people outside of Australia.

“And while people often associate these things with New Guinea or Borneo or Sumatra, the fact that there’s more species here is actually very exciting.”“Rat-eating plant discovered in Cape York,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, January 22, 2008.

Nepenthes tenax (Latin: tenax = tenacious) is a lowland species of tropical pitcher plant native to northern Queensland, Australia. It is the third Nepenthes species recorded from the continent, and its second endemic species. N. tenax is closely related to the two other Australian Nepenthes species: N. mirabilis and N. rowanae.

N. tenax grows to a height of around 100 cm with pitchers rarely exceeding 15 cm. The stem is usually self-supporting. In its natural habitat, it is sympatric with N. mirabilis and N. rowanae. Two natural hybrids involving these species have been found.

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anonymous  November 07, 2008 11:14 AM

Central sun

As far as a hypothetical central sun is concerned, an analogy can perhaps be drawn with the external sun. The theory that the sun is powered exclusively by thermonuclear reactions faces serious problems, the main one being that the sun only produces about a third as many neutrinos as the model requires. The fact that the sun undergoes periodic fluctuations in output and size is also difficult to reconcile with thermonuclear theory [21].

    To account for the neutrino shortage, it has been proposed that electron-neutrinos from the sun change into muon-neutrinos and tauon-neutrinos on their way to the earth, these two neutrino 'flavours' being more difficult to detect. In June 2001 the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) in Canada announced that it had confirmed this theory. However, the only way to truly confirm it would be to make neutrino measurements at the sun and at several points between sun and earth. Since the experiments in question only involved measurements on earth, the joyful acceptance of the SNO's pronouncements by other mainstream scientists merely confirms how uncritical and unprofessional they can be when orthodox theories are at stake [22].

    Harold Aspden is one of the scientists who rejects the hypothesis that the sun derives its power from fusion of colliding protons in its allegedly super-hot interior. He argues that gravity close to the sun's surface squeezes hydrogen atoms so close together that they ionize. And since the gravitational interaction between two free protons is 1836 times greater than that between two free electrons, the net repulsion of the protons in the sun's interior balances gravitational forces and prevents further compaction. As a result the sun has a uniform mass density and temperature that is insufficient to trigger fusion - 'and if it were,' says Aspden, 'the sun would have been blown to pieces long ago'! He continues:

The energy the sun radiates is sustained because free electrons recombine with protons and when they do, this imports energy from the quantum underworld (the aether) to get those electrons back into their quantum state orbits. The sun's energy is not fusion energy but simple energy drawn from the aether by gravity squeezing hydrogen atoms close together to cause ionization. [23]

    Paul LaViolette argues that the cores of both planets and stars produce what he calls 'genic energy', because they are supercritical regions of space where photons draw energy from the underlying ether. He argues that 15% of the sun's energy could be supplied by genic energy, while the rest comes from nuclear fusion. He shows that the sun and low-mass stars (red and brown dwarfs) have the same mass-luminosity relation as the four gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus), suggesting that they are powered chiefly by the same energy generation mechanism. He maintains that genic energy can account for 73% of the earth's entire thermal output, including all of the core heat flux. This would render unnecessary the current speculations that this heat comes from the gradual release of heat trapped since primordial times, or from the gradual solidification of a molten core, or from radioactive decay [24].

    Jones et al. have proposed that cold nuclear fusion might be an important source of the heat emanated by the earth [25]. They argue that the fusion of deuterium and hydrogen deep within the earth would explain the high levels of helium-3 found in rocks, liquids, and gases from volcanoes and in active tectonic regions of the earth's crust. They point out that Jupiter radiates twice as much heat as it receives from the sun, and suggest that the excess heat could come from cold fusion in Jupiter's core, which is believed to consist of metallic hydrogen together with iron silicates. LaViolette argues that while cold fusion might be feasible for planet-sized bodies, stars would exhaust their deuterium supply within a few million years due to their much higher luminosities, so that cold fusion does not explain why the planets share a common mass-luminosity relation with lower main-sequence stars.

    That there may be unrecognized sources of radiation deep within the earth is shown by the phenomenon of 'anomalous cascades' -- huge showers of nuclear particles that have been measured in a deep mine coming from the sides and even from below. Neutrinos are the only known particles capable of penetrating the entire earth to create the upwardly directed showers, but ordinary neutrinos from the sun do not seem to have enough energy to produce them [26].

21] Don Scott, 'The electric sun',

[22] Don Scott, 'Sudbury Neutrino Observatory report: an analysis',

[23] Harold Aspden, 'Tapping nature's energy source','s_energy_source.

[24] Paul LaViolette, Subquantum kinetics: A systems approach to physics and cosmology, Alexandria, VA: Starlane Publications, 2nd ed., 2003, pp. 189-204; Paul LaViolette, Genesis of the Cosmos: The ancient science of continuous creation, Rochester, VE: Bear and Company, 2004, pp. 318-27 (

[25] S.E. Jones et al., 'Observation of cold nuclear fusion in condensed matter', Nature, vol. 338, pp. 737-40, 1989; 'Rocks reveal the signature of fusion at the centre of the earth', New Scientist, 6 May 1989, p. 30.

[26] 'Particle shower sprays upward', Science News, vol. 118, p. 246, 1980.

 [report anonymous abuse]  [ accepted]
 October 29, 2008 12:54 PM


Surtsey is a new volcanic island off the south coast of Iceland that was created in 1963. The island grew quickly, within 4 days it was more than 1,970 ft. long and 197 ft. high. Eighteen months later, green plants where found growing on it. By 1968, it was home to 40 species of insects and birds.

 [ send green star]
 October 29, 2008 12:52 PM

Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal is the deepest lake on Earth, holding 1/5 of the planet's fresh water. As India continues to barge northward, Baikal may one day become a new ocean which will split Siberia apart.

 [ send green star]
 October 28, 2008 11:13 AM

Deep drilling springs surprises

How much faith can be put in the theories concerning the composition and density of rocks at different depths? The only place where the accuracy of scientific models can be tested directly is in the uppermost few kilometres of the crust. Although oil companies have drilled as deep as 8 km on land, they drill in sedimentary basins. The igneous and metamorphic basement, which averages 40 km thick and makes up most of the continental crust, has rarely been sampled deeper than 2 or 3 km.

    The deepest borehole drilled for scientific purposes is located on the Kola Peninsula near Murmansk, Russia, in the northwestern part of the Baltic Shield. The drilling of the main borehole began in 1970, and a final depth of 12,262 metres was reached in 1994. The drilling of this and other deep and superdeep wells has produced one surprise after another, and the findings have been extremely embarrassing for earth scientists [1]. One scientist commented: 'Every time we drill a hole we find the unexpected. That's exciting, but disturbing.' And a science reporter remarked: 'Kola revealed how far from truth scientific theory can roam.'

    At the Kola hole, scientists expected to find 4.7 km of metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rock, then a granitic layer to a depth of 7 km (the 'Conrad discontinuity'), with a basaltic layer below it. The granite, however, appeared at 6.8 km and extends to more than 12 km; no basaltic layer was ever found! Seismic-reflection surveys, in which sound waves sent into the crust bounce back off contrasting rock types, have detected the Conrad discontinuity beneath all the continents, but the standard interpretation that it represents a change from granitic to basaltic rocks is clearly wrong. Metamorphic changes brought about by heat and pressure are now thought to be the most likely explanation.

 [ send green star]
The Mystery of Geomagnetism October 28, 2008 11:11 AM

Most earth scientists believe that, as well as having a high density, the earth's core, unlike the mantle, must be metallic in order to generate the geomagnetic field. According to the dynamo theory, fluid motion in the earth's outer core moves conducting material (liquid iron) across an already existing, weak magnetic field and generates an electric current. The electric current, in turn, produces a magnetic field that also interacts with the fluid motion to create a secondary magnetic field. Together, the two fields are stronger than the original and lie essentially along the earth's rotation axis.

    The main characteristics of the geomagnetic field include short-term and long-term fluctuations in intensity, reversals of polarity at irregular intervals (ranging from tens of thousands to tens of millions of years), the 11° offset between the geomagnetic axis and spin axis, and the drift of the magnetic poles around the geographic poles in an estimated period of several thousand years. Scientists assume that the dynamo theory can explain these features, though a detailed understanding is lacking. There are competing dynamo models, and a great deal of fudging is required to get the numerical models to reproduce some of the features of the actual magnetic field [1].

    To explain the offset between the earth's geomagnetic axis and the spin axis, some scientists maintain that the earth's overall field may be a combination of a central, dynamo-created dipole field, aligned with the rotation axis, and several variable dipole fields located in the outermost portions of the core. But other scientists argue that there is no physical mechanism to generate dipoles near the core's surface [2]. Some planets have even greater and more puzzling tilts between their magnetic and rotation axes: 46.8° in the case of Neptune, and 58.6° in the case of Uranus.

    Even assuming that an outer core of liquid iron exists, there are major problems with the dynamo theory. Joseph Cater writes:

Scientists are somewhat vague as to how a magnetic field could extend 2,000 miles beyond an electric current. It requires a very powerful current to produce even relatively weak magnetic effects a very short distance above the flow. The electrical resistance of iron, at the alleged temperatures of the core, would be staggering. A steady flow of electricity requires constant potential differences. How are such potential differences produced and maintained in this hypothetical core?
    The magnitude, width, and depth of such currents would have to be unbelievable to extend the magnetic field even a small fraction of the distance required, and the EMF [electromotive force] required to produce it would be even more incredible. Where could such an EMF come from? So far, scientists seem reluctant to explain this, especially since these currents are confined to a ball and would therefore follow closed paths. [3]

    V.N. Larin questions whether a mechanism exists to maintain strong electric currents in the earth's interior during its entire evolution, and argues that the very existence of active convection in the core is dubious. If convection is of thermal origin, then the source of heat in the iron core is incomprehensible. Another possibility is radioactivity, but no mechanism is known which might have segregated radioactive elements together with iron and nickel. Some scientists think that the heat source of convection may be the ongoing growth of the core. In this case, the heat would come from the potential energy of heavy particles settling in the gravity field, but this is unlikely to have lasted several billion years [4].

    An alternative theory has been proposed by J.M. Herndon, who suggests that the earth's magnetic field is largely produced by electric currents generated by a self-sustaining nuclear fission reaction in a uranium (and thorium) subcore at the centre of the earth, having a density as high as 26 g/cm³ [5]. However, the existence of such a subcore is entirely hypothetical.

    Given their belief in the generation of magnetic fields by convection currents of electrically conducting liquid iron in a planet's core, scientists were puzzled by the discovery that the Moon and Mercury had significant magnetic fields, since the Moon's core is believed to be entirely solid and Mercury's core nearly so. Venus is believed to have an entirely liquid core and was expected to possess a strong magnetic field, but no significant self-generated field has been detected. The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn are believed to be generated by electric currents within a layer of liquid metallic hydrogen inside them, while the fields of Neptune and Uranus are thought to be produced in their superheated liquid mantles -- but all this is little better than guesswork [6]. Clearly the present dynamo theory cannot explain the magnetic fields detected around some asteroids.

 [ send green star]
 October 25, 2008 1:36 PM

Point Pleasant, West Virginia

Mothman and all the bizarre activity and high-strangeness that accompanied it back in the late 1960s put Point Pleasant on the paranormal map. Although things seem to have calmed down in Point Pleasant in recent decades, the Mothman event, chronicled by John Keel in his book The Mothman Prophecies (which later became a film), stands as one of the most peculiar and multi-layered episodes in the annals of paranormal phenomena. So many odd things were taking place that a list of them looks like an entire season of "The X-Files":

  • Sightings of the Mothman creature itself by more than than 100 witnesses - a tall, headless beast with glowing red eyes and huge bat-like wings.
  • UFO sightings.
  • Men-in-black appearances. Arriving black cars, these weird men mumble codes and bits of strange languages. They try to drink jelly and have difficulty using knives and forks.
  • Phantom phone calls.
  • Electrical disturbances to such devices as TVs, telephones and a police radio.
  • Eerie predictions and spontaneous prophecies, some of which were oddly out of sync.
  • Missing time.
  • Animal mutilations.
  • Mental telepathy.
  • Strange coincidences and repeating numbers.
  • A missing, possibly dead dog.

The Bridgewater Triangle - Massachusetts

This paranormal area was first defined by researcher Loren Coleman in his book Mysterious America. The Triangle encompasses an area of about 200 square miles and includes the towns of Abington, Rehoboth and Freetown at the points of the triangle, and Bridgewater, West Bridgewater, North Middleboro, Segreganset, Dighton, North Dighton, Berkley, Myricks, Raynham, East Taunton, and Taunton inside the triangle. Central to the area is the mysterious Hockomock Swamp, which the Native Americans called "the Devil's swamp."

Paranormal activity in the Triangle include:

  • Low-flying UFOs. The first UFO sighted over Bridgewater was in 1760, and was described as a sphere of fire that was so bright it cast shadows in broad daylight. Another was sighted on Halloween night in 1908, appropriately by two undertakers. Dozens more UFOs have been seen in the vicinity from the 1960s through to present day.

  • Sightings of Bigfoot. The hairy hominid has been seen many times around Hockomock Swamp. In April, 1970, the creature allegedly picked up the rear of a police squad car, much to the surprise of the two officers inside.

  • A large phantom dog with red eyes was seen killing two ponies. The witness, the ponies' owner, said the beast ripped their throats and was almost as big as the ponies themselves.

  • Assorted strange or out-of-place creatures, including black panthers, giant turtles and snakes as thick as tree trunks.


  • Cattle mutilations.

  • Indian curses. According to one tale, the Native Americans had cursed the swamp centuries ago because of the poor treatment they received from the Colonial settlers.


  • Ghosts. Visitors have experienced such haunting activity as the smell of smoke when there is no fire; a bonfire atop a rock that mysteriously vanished and ghostly voices in Algonquin tongue. There may also be a redheaded phantom hitchhiker who terrorizes motorists on Route 44.

  • Spook lights have been seen on a number of occasions

 [ send green star]
 October 25, 2008 1:30 PM

Sedona - Arizona

Sedona has become a kind of Mecca for New Age seekers, psychics, UFO hunters and explorers of the unexplained, and was the site where the "harmonic convergence" of 1987 was celebrated. It's been called the "New Age Disneyland of karmic consumerism."

Strangeness reports include:

  • "In recent years, Sedona has become known as the site of frequent UFO sightings," says Loy Lawhon,'s former Guide to UFOs. "The objects seen most frequently there are the 'ball of light' type UFOs rather than those that resemble metallic craft."
  • Site of the alleged Sedona Vortex - an interdimensional portal or doorway between our dimension and some other, or to a higher level of consciousness. (There's a lot of money being made by guided tours, seminars, psychic readers and the like surrounding these vortexes.) Bigelow Ranch - Uintah Basin, Utah
  • This 480-acre cattle ranch in central Utah was so plagued by UFOs and other strange phenomena that its one-time owners, Terry and Gwen Sherman, were eager to get rid of it. A willing buyer was found in Las Vegas real estate tycoon Robert T. Bigelow because he was intrigued by the mysterious goings-on. He brought in a team of investigators and set up arrays of surveillance equipment to find out what was taking place. Some have dubbed the ranch "the strangest place on Earth."

  • Here's just some of what was going on:

    • Unexplained cattle mutilations, and cattle that just disappeared. Ten of the Sherman's cows reportedly vanished.
    • UFOs "the size of football fields." And in 1980, a rancher claimed to have seen a 40-foot silver sphere on the ground of what later became the Sherman ranch.
    • Terry Sherman claimed to have actually seen aliens come out of one UFO. "It was a human type, over seven feet tall, decked out in a totally black uniform and very huge, very heavyset," he reported.
    • Interdimensional portals that were seen to open in mid-air. The Shermans said they saw lights emerging from these doorways.
    • Floating balls of light, one of which might have toasted the family dogs. The Sherman's three dogs vanished after chasing a ball of light. A circular burn mark was found on the ground near where the dogs were last seen.
    • Gwen Sherman was supposedly chased by several red balls of light while driving home one night.


  • Big Thicket - Hardin County, Texas

  • The Big Thicket spreads across East Texas and Southwestern Louisiana, and may be home to a host of paranormal phenomena and earthly anomalies:

    • Ghost lights, some of which have been known to disable automobile engines and seem to exhibit intelligence. This light can be found along Black Creek near the old ghost town of Bragg in eastern Texas. The Big Thicket Ghost Light has been described as starting as a pinpoint of light among the swamp trees that grows to the brightness of a flashlight, then dims and fades away. Its color has been likened to that of a pumpkin.
    • Phantom primitive Indians who allegedly have attacked people.
    • Howling, ape-like wildmen. They "wander the deep woods at night, and occasionally even the town margins and suburbs, howling like banshees," says author Rob Riggs.
    • Unexplained fireballs that streak through darkened skies.

    Big Thicket - Hardin County, Texas

  • The Big Thicket spreads across East Texas and Southwestern Louisiana, and may be home to a host of paranormal phenomena and earthly anomalies:

    • Ghost lights, some of which have been known to disable automobile engines and seem to exhibit intelligence. This light can be found along Black Creek near the old ghost town of Bragg in eastern Texas. The Big Thicket Ghost Light has been described as starting as a pinpoint of light among the swamp trees that grows to the brightness of a flashlight, then dims and fades away. Its color has been likened to that of a pumpkin.
    • Phantom primitive Indians who allegedly have attacked people.
    • Howling, ape-like wildmen. They "wander the deep woods at night, and occasionally even the town margins and suburbs, howling like banshees," says author Rob Riggs.
    • Unexplained fireballs that streak through darkened skies.

 [ send green star]
Paranormal Hot Spots October 25, 2008 1:23 PM

THERE ARE MANY places around the US that seem to be focal points of high strangeness - vortexes of bizarre sightings, unexplained encounters and eerie events. Reports gathered over the decades have bestowed reputations on these locations as places you might not want to travel alone, or at least tread carefully. The interesting thing about most of these areas is that they are confluences of a variety of phenomena, from ghosts and monsters to Bigfoot and UFOs. Following are a handful of them, and the strange things seen there.

The Superstition Mountains - Arizona

This mountainous area in south central Arizona didn't get its name for nothing. And white men weren't the first to note its bad vibrations; the Apache Indians called it the Devil's playground.

Among the reported strangeness are:

THERE ARE MANY places around the US that seem to be focal points of high strangeness - vortexes of bizarre sightings, unexplained encounters and eerie events. Reports gathered over the decades have bestowed reputations on these locations as places you might not want to travel alone, or at least tread carefully. The interesting thing about most of these areas is that they are confluences of a variety of phenomena, from ghosts and monsters to Bigfoot and UFOs. Following are a handful of them, and the strange things seen there.

The Superstition Mountains - Arizona

This mountainous area in south central Arizona didn't get its name for nothing. And white men weren't the first to note its bad vibrations; the Apache Indians called it the Devil's playground.

Among the reported strangeness are

  • An entry into a subterranean world. Those who claim to have penetrated the tunnel tell of the remains of ancient structures and a spiral staircase that leads down into the bowels of earth. Some say Reptilian humanoids have come out of these portals.
  • Time and dimensional shifts. Mary Sutherland relates her weird experience of "apportaton" at Apache Junction.
  • Spirit faces in the rocks.
  • A legend that the mountains were once guarded by a race of pygmies.
  • Location of the famous "Lost Dutchman" mine.
  • Site of the Circlestone medicine wheel, 6,000 feet up in the mountains - "an artifact that could be as important as England’s Stonehenge," according to some researchers.
  • During the '50s, '60s and '70s, numerous UFOs were sighted around Flat Iron and Bluff Springs Mountain, which is adjacent to Circlestone. In 1973, two campers reported seeing a UFO land and then take off from the Circlestone area.

 [ send green star]
 October 24, 2008 4:01 PM

Runningfox, this fascinates me to no end, I have read a lot and feel that if we as a people survive long enough it will be found that there have been civilizations as advanced as us long before what is known at present. Ancient calenders show 360 days for the earth to make its trip around the sun and now it is 365 and 1 quarter days to do it. What happened to move the earth out of orbit that far. Being closer would be warmer and also much more water in the atmosphere which would explain the flood because of the earths cooling afterwords, the water vapor would fall as rian. Also an event of this size would surely kill off a lot of the living beings that lived here. It also explains why there has been so much tropical vegetation found in the arctic areas of the earth.  [ send green star]  [ accepted]
 October 24, 2008 3:36 PM

Secrets of the Hollow Earth

The interior of the Earth, some believe, is home to strange races of technologically advanced beings. Who are they and where are the hidden entrances to their subterranean cities?

Many readers of the paranormal and the unexplained are familiar with the theory that the Earth is hollow. The idea is based on the ancient legends of many cultures that say there are races of people - entire civilizations - that thrive in subterranean cities. Very often, these dwellers of the world beneath are more technologically advanced than we on the surface. Some even believe that UFOs are not from other planets, but are manufactured by strange beings in the interior of the Earth.

Who are these strange races of beings? How did they come to live inside the Earth? And where are the entrances to their underground cities?


The Network. One of the most common names cited for the society of underground dwellers is Agharta (or Agartha)  with its capital city of Shamballa. The source for this information, apparently, is The Smoky God, the "biography" of a Norwegian sailor named Olaf Jansen. According to Agartha - Secrets of the Subterranean Cities, the story, written by Willis Emerson, explains how Jansen's sloop sailed through an entrance to the Earth's interior at the North Pole. For two years he lived with the inhabitants of the Agharta network of colonies who, Emerson writes, were a full 12 feet tall and whose world was lit by a "smoky" central sun. Shamballa the Lesser, one of the colonies, was also the seat of government for the network. "While Shamballa the Lesser is an inner continent, its satellite colonies are smaller enclosed ecosystems located just beneath the Earth' s crust or discreetly within mountains."

How and Why They Went There. The many cataclysms and wars taking place on the surface drove these people underground, according to Secrets: "Consider the lengthy Atlantean-Lemurian war and the power of thermonuclear weaponry that eventually sank and destroyed these two highly advanced civilizations. The Sahara, the Gobi, the Australian Outback and the deserts of the U.S. are but a few examples of the devastation that resulted. The sub-cities were created as refuges for the people and as safe havens for sacred records, teachings and technologies that were cherished by these ancient cultures."

The Entrances. There are allegedly several entrances to the Kingdom of Agharta throughout the world: 

  • Kentucky Mommoth Cave, in south-central Kentucky, US.
  • Mount Shasta, California, US - the Agharthean city of Telos allegedly exists within and beneath this mountain.
  • Manaus, Brazil.
  • Mato Grosso, Brazil - the city of Posid supposedly lies beneath this plain.
  • Iguaçú Falls, border or Brazil and Argentina.
  • Mount Epomeo, Italy.
  • Himalayan Mountains, Tibet - the entrance to the underground city of Shonshe is allegedly guarded by Hindu monks.
  • Mongolia - the underground city of Shingwa allegedly exists beneath the border of Mongolia and China.
  • Rama, India - beneath this surface city is a long lost subterranean city, they say, also named Rama.
  • Pyramid of Giza, Egypt.
  • King Solomon's Mines.
  • Dero Caves, ?.
  • North and South Poles.
 [ send green star]
Tunnel Network Under California October 24, 2008 3:17 PM

According to an article entitled in the Fall 1985 edition of Search magazine, a high-ranking but unnamed Naval officer told of the discovery of a huge network of tunnels under portions of the west coast of the U.S. He said that U.S. nuclear submarines had explored some of these tunnels, which are accessible just off the continental shelf, and had followed them inland for several hundred miles. Here are more highlights of this incredible claim:

  • What is being passed off as the San Andreas Fault are actually large, unsupported chambers that are in the process of collapsing.
  • A well-known U.S. Nuclear submarine lost its way in one of the passages and was never heard from again. (Two U.S. nuclear submarines have disappeared under mysterious circumstances - the U.S.S. Thresher and the U.S.S. Scorpion.)
  • Some of California is actually floating on the ocean. When oil companies began pumping oil from beneath the city of Long Beach, it began to sink - up to 26 feet before the pumping was stopped.

More and More Tunnels

The above story was written up in a long article called "The Underground Empire," which reveals many more details. It also offers these other fascinating accounts:

  • A couple from Bishop, Calif. discovered a circular hole in the ground while exploring for petroglyphs. They climbed down the hole which bottomed out to a horizontal corridor. On one of the walls was carved a face out of the mouth of which poured water. Suddenly the water started to gush out of the face and from other openings, and the couple was forced to abandon the tunnel. Later, both recalled that they heard music down there.
  • In West Virginia, workers found some caverns with strange hieroglyphics written on the walls. They also claimed to gear faint voices and what sounded like machinery coming from beyond the walls of the cavern.
  • Two men searching for bat guano (which has some value as fertilizer) at the foot of Mount Lassen found a deep cave. They followed it inside for a mile or two and noticed that the floor was worn smooth, as if it had been used for a road. Eventually they met three strange "men" who asked if they are "surface people," and then took them deeper in the cave on an electromagnetically powered hovercraft. The story gets stranger from there.
  • Travelers Ferdinand Ossendowski and Nicholas Roerich claim to have discovered a subterranean society below central Asia, which they referred to as Agharta or Agharti. They say it is home to 20 million people, and their civilization extends throughout all the subterranean passages of the world.
  • A 12-man speleological team broke into an ancient tunnel system in northern Arkansas and encountered the inhabitants of the subsurface world.
  • Exploring another cave in Arkansas, just north of Batesville, explorers found a tunnel illuminated by a greenish phosphorescence where they met a race of beings who stood 7 to 8 feet tall and had bluish skin. The beings, who have advanced technology, told the explorers they are the direct descendents of Noah.

Brazil is said to have many entrances to an underground world. Several people claim to have proof:

  • Two explorers returning from tunnels near Ponte Grosse in Brazil say they spent five days in an underworld city inhabited by 50 adults and some children.
  • The same two explorers found another tunnel entrance in Rincon and saw luminous flying saucers going in and out, and heard beautiful choral singing.
  • An old man living near Concepiao told how he had visited a vast underground city where strange vehicles darted back and forth.
  • An explorer looking through a tunnel near Rio Casdor met a beautiful woman who appeared to be about 20 years old, but told the explorer she was 2,500 years old.

Pretty far-out stuff, huh? There is, of course, no proof to verify any of these stories, and the explorers always seem to lose or forget where the exact entrance to these caves and tunnels are. Some of the stories may have a basis in fact, but most are certainly tall tales, exaggerations, or outright fabrications. But they fortify our fascination with strange caves and tunnels. They make me, at least, want to go exploring in them. And who knows what would be found!

 [ send green star]
Earth Mysteries October 24, 2008 3:09 PM

Mysterious TunnelsStrange tales of subterranean civilizations, cities and ancient technology

There is something fundamentally and primally mysterious about caves and tunnels. Maybe it's their darkness or the fact that they open into the very body of the Earth. They are invariably the subjects of adolescent adventure stories, such as the Hardy Boys, Nancy Drew mysteries, and R.L. Stine's books. And they serve as backgrounds in exciting stories directed at older audiences as well, such as Jules Verne's A Journey to the Center of the Earth and the Indiana Jones films. Tunnels represent the unknown and touch the fears that reside deep in the primitive human subconscious.

I've come across several sites on the Web that tell what some believe are true stories of vast underground networks of tunnels. And they are no less mysterious and fantastic than those used as settings in the fictional tales mentioned above. It's not that the tunnels merely exist and are unknown to most people, it's what they contain, who built them, and why – and that takes us into the deepest recesses of the unknown.

People who claim to have first- or second-hand knowledge or experience with these tunnels make many astonishing claims: that they contain long-lost cities; that they are inhabited by advanced civilizations – perhaps the descendents of Atlantis; that they are bases for extraterrestrials and their flying saucers; that they are bases for secret government installations. The government no doubt has top-secret military installations deep within mountains and perhaps underground, but this, of course, is the least fantastic of the stories.

Here are highlights of some of the more extraordinary claims. Since these stories come without photos or any other kind of verification, consider them skeptically. In any case, they are fascinating.

Grand Canyon Mystery

The April 5, 1909 edition of The Phoenix Gazette carried a story entitled "Explorations in Grand Canyon." According to the article, a man named G.E. Kinkaid made an astonishing discovery while on an expedition, sponsored by the Smithsonian Institute, in the Grand Canyon. Among his findings:

  • A mammoth chamber about 1,480 feet underground from which radiates dozens of passageways "like the spokes of a wheel."
  • Several hundred rooms, some of which contain artifacts such as weapons and copper instruments of a kind that have never been known to be native to the Americas.
  • A crypt containing mummies - all adult males - wrapped in a bark fabric.
  • A shrine containing a Buddha-like idol sitting cross-legged with a lotus flower in each hand.
  • Stone tablets on which are carved mysterious Egyptian-like hieroglyphics.

The article also mentions a legend of the Hopi Indians that says their ancestors once lived in an underworld in the Grand Canyon.

Crumf Burial Cave

In 1892, Frank Burns of the U.S. Geological Survey reported that he found strange coffins in the Crunf Cave along the southern branch of the Warrior River in Murphy's Valley, Alabama. The wooden coffins appeared to be hollowed out by fire, then chiseled with stone or copper tools. Each coffin was 7.5 feet long, 14 to 18 inches wide, and 6 to 7 inches deep. The lids were open on each empty coffin. The specimens were sent to the Smithsonian, which suggested the coffins might actually be troughs. In any case, the museum lost the artifacts.

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