10 Reasons Why the Meat and Dairy Industry Is Unsustainable

Editor’s note: This post is a Care2 favorite, back by popular demand. It was originally published on December 31, 2013. Enjoy!

Like it or not, you can’t hide from the fact that eating animal products creates a massive problem for everyone on the planet.

Here are 10 reasons why the meat and dairy industry is unsustainable:

1. Deforestation


Photo Credit: Barn Images/Flickr

Farm animals require considerably more land than crops to produce a given amount of food energy. In Central America alone, 40 percent of all rainforests have been cleared in the last 40 years for cattle pasture to feed the export market — often for U.S. beef burgers. The World Hunger Program calculated that recent world harvests — if distributed equitably and fed directly to humans, as opposed to livestock — could provide a vegan diet to 6 billion people.

2. Fresh water 

Without a doubt, animal agriculture has one of the largest water footprints on the planet. It may be hard to believe, but the standard American diet requires a whopping 4,200 gallons of water per day – including animals’ drinking water, irrigation of crops, processing, washing, etc. — whereas a vegan diet only requires 300. The easiest way to reduce demand for water is to eliminate the consumption of animal products.

3. Waste disposal

livestock waste

Photo Credit: Justin Leonard/Flickr

Today’s factory farms house hundreds of thousands of cows, pigs and chickens — and, in turn, produce astronomical amounts of waste. In the U.S., these giant livestock farms generate more than 130 times the amount of waste that humans do. Agricultural waste has polluted thousand of miles of rivers and contaminated groundwater, killing aquatic life and creating huge dead zones.

4. Energy consumption

chicken transportation

Photo Credit: Anis Eka/Flickr

For that steak to end up on your plate, the cow has to consume massive amounts of energy along the way. Growing grain — often with a heavy use of agricultural chemicals — to feed cattle, transporting cattle thousands of miles to slaughter and market and refrigerating and cooking the meat all amounts to an absurd use of resources. On average, it takes 28 calories of fossil fuel to produce 1 calorie of protein from meat, whereas it takes only 3.3 calories of fossil fuel to produce 1 calorie of protein from grain.

5. Food productivity


Photo Credit: Jordan/Flickr

The food productivity of farmland is quickly falling behind population growth, and the only option available to us — short of stabilizing the population — is to cut back on meat consumption and convert grazing land to food crops. In the U.S., an estimated 56 million acres of land are dedicated to hay production for livestock. Only 4 million acres are used to grow vegetables for human consumption.

6. Global warming

Global warming is driven by energy consumption, and as noted above, livestock are energy-guzzling. But that’s not all. Livestock also emit potent global warming gases into the environment. Cattle, in particular, produce a significant amount of methane. For example, a single dairy cow produces an average of 75 kilos of methane annually.

7. Loss of biodiversity

Poaching and the black market sale of bushmeat is becoming a growing problem as our planet becomes increasingly overcrowded. Poorer populations often venture into wildlife reserves to kill everything from elephants and chimpanzees to bonobos and birds. Hunters rely on logging roads maintained by big multinational companies for easy access to the forest — and the animals that inhabit it.

8. Grassland destruction


Photo Credit: Janelle Ball/Flickr

As the herds of domesticated animals expanded, bison and antelope habitat was replaced by monoculture grasslands for large scale cattle grazing. Grasslands have suffered a massive loss of biodiversity as a result. What was once a rich ecosystem is now is a single species monoculture.

9. Soil erosion

soil erosion

Photo Credit: Forrest Cavale

With 60 percent of the United States’ pastureland overgrazed, the acceleration of soil erosion and degradation is an increasing concern. It takes approximately 500 years to replace just 1 inch of precious topsoil. While fertilizers may be able to replace a small amount of lost nutrients, the large inputs of fossil energy required is completely unrealistic and unsustainable.

10. Lifestyle disease

The excessive consumption of meat and dairy in developed countries combined with environmental pollution and lack of exercise is causing an abundance of preventable health problems, such as heart disease. While Western nations struggle with strokes, cancer, diabetes and heart attacks, other countries are impacted from disease brought on by a lack of access to agricultural land.

When taking into consideration all of the points made above, it’s clear that a meat and dairy dependent diet is unsustainable in the long term. Couple that with the threat of rapid population growth — the current U.S. population is an estimated 285 million and is projected to double in the next 70 years — and even greater stress will be placed an our already limited resources.

Regardless of the role of meat and dairy in nutrition or the ethics of animal rights, on the grounds of economic and ecological sustainability alone, the consumption of animal products is a looming problem for humankind.

If you want to live a low impact lifestyle and reduce your use of the world’s precious resources, try opting for animal-free food choices instead.

Photo Credit: Annie Spratt/Unsplash


Kelly S
Past Member 24 days ago

I agree!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Crystal G
Crystal G6 months ago

This article is pathetic.

M s
M s7 months ago

will Americans ever wake up?meat poultry ,beef etc cause disease Our ancestors diet was on;y 5% meat intake Our gut is NOT made to break down meat It ROTS as it passes through,releasing toxins and changes at the cellular level Thanks to meat we have obesity,diabetes more strokes heart attacks dementia parkinsons neurological diseases ,increased cancers...the list is endless Meat consumption makes ranchers greedier It's why ranchers are decimating/slaughtering wolves cougars bears fox and coyotes Over 95 000 of our wild horses & burros have been brutal removed from our land as ranchers lie about overpopulation Ranchers are paying big $$$$ to congress to slaughter those horses and remove all of them to extinction They're taking wolves and other apex predators with them Huge biosystems will collapse Other species will die as will plants trees and the land WAKE UP AMERICA You are brainwashed from dept of agriculture/meat industry/cattle ranchers /usda...the list goes on As you become ill,they are laughing all the way to the bank

Renata B
Renata B7 months ago

Gerald L: have you been hibernated for decades? I don't think you are aware of the information around and the scientific research. Just update yourself to 2017 and then come back. If in the meantime you don't fall asleep again of course.

Jerome S
Jerome S8 months ago


Jim V
Jim Ven8 months ago

thanks for sharing.

Leong S
Leong Sabout a year ago

thank you...

Nang Hai C
Nang Hai Cabout a year ago


Gerald L
Gerald Labout a year ago

How much Clear Cutting of Forests is required for making Cruelty Free Vegan Approved Rayon and Bamboo Fibre? Evicting forest animals must be just Collateral Damage then. Polluting Pulp Mills are also excused dumping mercury into adjacent waterbodies, right? And using a Neurotoxin Carbon Disulphide also gets a pass, as long as we abhor the use of wool and silk. March on vegan soldiers, march on till you all stumble off over the edge of a cliff.

Chen Boon Fook
Chen Boon Fookabout a year ago