10 Theories About the Mysteries of Stonehenge

Many gathered last week to celebrate the verbal equinox at Stonehenge. Thought to be created between 3000 and 2500 B.C.E., Stonehenge is getting something of a makeover. This year will see the closure of of the A344, the road alongside monument. The £27 million pound project will add a visitor center, remove a parking lot, “restore the dignity” of the stones’ setting and “minimize the intrusion of the modern world,” according to English Heritage.

Can’t argue with that, though the plan to restore the site to more of its original naturalistic state does not go quite as far as hoped. A plan for all major roads to be diverted via tunnels has been scrapped, for instance.

Thanks to radiocarbon dating, archaeologists and historians have been able to figure out that, around 3000 B.C.E., the huge circular ditch that now surrounds the stones was dug and  a number of bluestones erected. It was around 2600 B.C.E. that the sarsens, the giant stones, were erected and massive rock lintels placed atop them. Five trilithons (with three stones, a horizontal one capping two verticals slabs) were raised. All these were aligned such that the setting midwinter sun and the rising midsummer sun shine through the very middle of the site and down through the road leading up to it.

What purpose the stones and site served has been the subject of constant speculation since ancient times:

1) Back in the twelfth century, Geoffrey of Monmouth said that no one less than the legendary wizard Merlin had built Stonehenge as a burial place for knights slain in fighting the Saxons.

2) ) Most recently, University College London professor Mark Parker Pearson has suggested that Stonehenge was in essence a celebration site that unified Britain. While originally a burial site, Pearson says that, just as today, people gathered at the massive stones to celebrate the solstices in what was like “Glastonbury festival and a motorway building scheme at the same time.”

Some 80,000 bones from cattle from all over Britain have been found near the site; Pearson suggests that Stonehenge was a “monument that brought ancient Britain together,” at a time that was the only one “in prehistory in which ‘the people of Britain were unified’ and all engaged in a ‘common cultural activity.’”

3) Professor Tim Darvill of Bournemouth University instead suggests that Stonehenge was a “place for the living” where people came to seek cures, in the manner of pilgrims visiting the shrine of our Lady of Lourdes.

4) Scientists have some other ideas. Based on the alignment of the stones, Stonehenge was a sort of observatory, where astronomical calculations could be made to predict phenomena like lunar eclipses.

5) Anthony Perks of the University of British Columbia’s Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology has suggested that the whole circular monument is meant to be a fertility symbol, in the shape of the female sexual organ (pdf) in honor of some sort of prehistoric mother goddess.

6) A 2011 study by an international team of archaeologists suggested that, long before the sarsens were erected, the pits surrounding Stonehenge had been used for sun worship, another argument for it being a sacred site.

7) Druids have often been associated with Stonehenge (including with building it). While some say Stonehenge existed before Druidism came into being, others argue that the Druids predate Stonehenge by a good millennium and that the connection between them and the huge stone circle “may be fairly recent.”

8) An architect, John Webb, dispensed with the idea that those indigenous to Britain built Stonehenge. The huge structure was rather built by the Romans as a temple to a sky-god Coelus.

9) Others suggest that it wasn’t the Romans but the Danes who built Stonehenge — and others take the notion of someone “foreign” building Stonehenge a bit further and suggest that aliens built it.

10) Geologists have suggested that Stonehenge’s builders were neither human nor alien but the forces of nature itself and that glaciers “snatched” the huge stones from the Preseli Hills and deposited them on Salisbury Plain. Never underestimate the power of mother nature?

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Kathy Perez
Kathy Johnson4 years ago

i love theories about ancient monuments..

Michael H.
Mike H4 years ago

It might be a vortex to another universe,

Connie O.
Connie O4 years ago

interesting...it would be so great to be able to discover an answer to all the mysteries in the world!

Sarah Hill
Sarah Hill4 years ago

interesting. The place is truly amazing!

Fiona Fahey
Fiona Fahey4 years ago

I am that none of these theories involved aliens.

Phil P.
Phil P4 years ago

Humans haven't changed in 000s of years. Now we build mega churches, mosques, temples to worship the imaginary instead of piling up stones, which when you think about it, it's really the same thing, piling up stones that is. Same result for all the worship and praying: what ever will be will be.

Kara C.
Kara C4 years ago

My theory is a bunch pagans where sitting around drinking and one went "guys, guys hey guys, lets move rocks! like really big ones, imagine what future people will think"
Then they all laughed had a few more drinks and woke up very sore going why the hell are these rock here and what did we do last night?!

Arild Warud


Loo Samantha
Loo sam4 years ago


Sue H.
Sue H4 years ago

Fascinating how many possibilities there are!