Cave Women Rocked: Science Shows Prehistoric Gender Equality

You know the cartoon where a caveman clubs a cavewoman over the head, then drags her to his lair by her hair? The blood-boiling message is that male dominance is natural and immutable, rooted deeply in our genes and behavior.

Screw that. Scientists are finding that in prehistoric societies, females may have been equal to males in many ways. The stuff we thought we knew about hominids’ patriarchal, sexist ways is based on male scientists’ assumptions that men were in charge. Pennsylvania State archaeologist Dean Snow put his finger on it in an interview with National Geographic: “There has been a male bias in the literature for a long time….People have made a lot of unwarranted assumptions.”

1. Women Made Cave Art

Take the assumption that men painted and drew the images we can still see in their caves. Game animals were a frequent subject. Since modern men assumed that ancient men did the hunting, they also assumed that men made the paintings.

It turns out that women made their mark too — they may even have been responsible for the majority of those pictures. Hundreds of them are stencils of people’s hands, and Snow found that 75 percent of them were women’s. Experts can identify the gender of a hand’s owner relatively reliably based on its proportions. Men’s ring fingers tend to be longer than their index fingers, while in women, the two fingers tend to be the same length. In most of the Paleolithic-era stencils found in France and Spain, the ring and index fingers are the same length.

2. Women Hunted

The stencils women made of their hands appear next to paintings of animals their societies hunted and ate. New evidence shows that Pleistocene female hominids†hunted, leaving no reason to think that men painted the animals. Snow says that women may have gone hunting with men and hauled dead animals back to their dwellings.

Some anthropologists argue that female Neanderthals participated in hunting, a dangerous activity, in part based on their skeletons’ displaying the same bone fractures as male skeletons do. Another reason for the conclusion is Neanderthals’ relative lack of tools, meaning they relied on numbers to overcome their prey.

Mercyhurst Archaeological Institute’s Director†James Adovasio posits that the notions of Paleolithic men as the strong, fierce hunters and of women staying away from danger may derive more from our own modern culture than from the actual evidence, echoing Snow.

3. Women Traveled Further and Sought Out Sexual Partners

If everyone stayed in those little prehistoric cave clans and mated with the folks they knew, some scary inbreeding would result. Someone had to venture into the great unknown to find fresh dating stock, and it looks like it was the females.

Scientists collected teeth from two species of our ancestors who lived at different times in South Africa and, by using laser ablation to measure strontium isotope ratios, figured out what food those teeth had chewed. The results indicated that men stayed in place while women sallied forth. Gals, take note: there is nothing wrong with pursuing the object of your affection/lust. Go for it.

4. Men Cared for Children

Today’s younger generations are exploring the radical possibility that women are not uniquely gifted with superior diaper-changing skills. Our species figured that out thousands of years ago. We just forgot.

A study out of Northwestern published in American Anthropologist argued that way back when, fathers carried, bathed, fed, taught and played with children. The study’s author, Lee T. Gettler, argued that if fathers had shirked this kind of labor, humans could not have evolved into the big-brained world conquerors we are today.

Humans grew larger by ingesting more calories and expending less energy. NBC’s article about Gettler’s study reports that the biggest gobbler of primates’ energy is child-bearing and rearing. By splitting the rearing, women could direct more energy to the bearing, allowing them to give birth more often.

A researcher not affiliated with Gettler, evolutionary biologist and biological anthropologist John Tooby, hypothesizes that having two active, involved parents instead of one meant children could remain dependent longer and spend more time developing their brains. Maybe we would be even smarter now if dads hadn’t been such deadbeats for centuries.


As researchers work toward freeing themselves from culturally-grounded assumptions like male dominance, they are discovering that our ancestors practiced gender equality, and that without it, humans wouldn’t have become what we are. Looks like gender equality has benefited humans quite a bit.

Photo credit: jameskm03


Ruth S
Ruth S7 months ago


Jerome S
Jerome Sabout a year ago


Jim Ven
Jim Venabout a year ago

thanks for sharing.

Emily J.
Emily J1 years ago

Go Cavewomen! :D This evidence doesn't surprise me one bit. We had gender-equality as late as the Celtic civilisation here in the UK, but things seemed to go downhill after that.

Rebecca S.
Rebecca S3 years ago

Thank You!! Interesting Article!!!

Sam J.
Sam J.3 years ago

>find a single, inconclusive piece of evidence
>extrapolate, extrapolate, extrapolate!
>don't forget to pepper your 'research' with cheap, emotional rhetoric and a dash of snark!

In a better world, disingenuous propaganda hucksters like these would be lined up and shot.

Leigh EVERETT4 years ago

Judie B.

Who cares who wrote which book. It is the information contained in that book which it important. Esther was a very strong woman and if it was the intent of men to hide that fact, this book would never have been written.
The only book in The Bible that we do not know for sure who the author was is Hebrews. It has been suggested throughout history that is was written by Priscilla, the wife of Aquilla (a couple who lead the church in Ephesus). Priscilla was significant in the early church as a Bible teacher, church leader and preacher.

I am however surprised at your statement about Mary being a prostitute (you are talking about the mother of Jesus?) as historians have calculated that she was probably around 13 or 14 years of age when she fell pregnant with Jesus. A bit young to be on the streets don't you think? (and don't go saying that it is not uncommon today as we are talking about 2000 years ago). Never mind the fact that she was a virgin (don't know of many virgin prostitutes).

Women and men ARE equal in the eyes of God and Jesus, you only have to read The Bible to see that (and no that doesn't include listening to church leaders, I mean read the scriptures for yourself) but being equal doesn't mean that we are created to do the same jobs. Both sexes have their roles in life and they are by far the same, but the teamwork between the sexes makes us strong. We need to find our place and do what we are good at.

Angela Roquemore
Angela Roquemore4 years ago


Fi T.
Past Member 4 years ago

Everyone is born to be equal

Franck R.
Past Member 4 years ago

Interesting, Thanks