Where is the Mexican Atticus Finch?


Written by Matt Amaral

Sometimes I worry about what I am teaching my students when we read Latino literature. Hereís my biggest gripe: In order for these novels to properly reflect the lives of our students of color, why do the male characters always have to be violent drunks who cheat on their wives?

It seems like every Latino novel I teach has a female protagonist named Esperanza (seriously, itís ALWAYS Esperanza), who must overcome rampant male dominance in her Latino community, overcome poverty and racism — and all while representing the hope for our young women her symbolic name carries. The girls love it, as well they should. But the boys who need to become men? Not so much.

Our boys are reading about girls, and the few male characters we meet along our journey are drunken maniacs and cheats. Donít believe me? Read these books: The House on Mango Street, Like Water for Chocolate, Parrot in the Oven, Rain of Gold.

Over the summer, my Puente students read Rain of Gold. It is an epic tale of a family who escapes the Mexican Revolution and makes it to California. It is also a scathing portrayal of Latino males in which almost every one of the many male characters is a reprehensible scoundrel. The authorís (Victor Villasenorís) father ends up marrying his mother based on a series of lies so complex she actually has no idea who the man is she married. The House on Mango Street doesnít have a single male character who has any redeemable qualities. The father in Parrot in the Oven is an unemployed drunk who spends the familyís welfare money on beer and tries to shoot the mother with his unregistered rifle.

And we wonder why 75 percent of Latinos who make it to college are female.

Okay, Iím being harsh. There are some Latino novels out there with strong male characters. Even Parrot in the Oven stars a boy trying to become a man the right way, despite the lack of male role models in his life. But arenít we just reinforcing the wrong kind of stereotypes? Why do we point to a violent drunk and say, ďNow THAT is a Mexican father!Ē

Of course, part of the problem lies in what makes a good story. You canít write a novel about people who are happy and well adjusted. Clearly, a middle-class Mexican kid who attends the local private school on his way to college isnít going to ring true to our low-income public school students.

Or could he?

I just get tired of being told that in order to reach our Latino males, we should teach them Always Running, which shows the childhood of a former gang member. What Iím trying to say is there are probably 30 books out there about teens who are gang members. The boys love these novels, and these books do get them to read, but they only read them because everyone is shooting each other. Our Latino males already have enough gang problems; they donít need it in every book, too. Of course the lesson is always the same: ďI was a gang member and then discovered the error of my ways.Ē Unfortunately, our boys only see the first part ó and it allows them to say, ďSo Iím in a gang; eventually Iíll learn my lesson, but for right now Iím going to bang.Ē

Let me tell you a true story. A couple of years ago a Latino father came to me worried about his son. He said, ďI donít know whatís wrong with him. He doesnít play sports. He isnít interested in cars. He just doesnít seem like heís okay.Ē Of course, he was an excellent student. He was on the college track, he did his homework, and wasnít into cars and sports because he was into math and literature. It fell to me to tell the man there was nothing at all wrong with his son. In fact, maybe he should be more worried about his older son who was on the fast track to drop out of high school, who consequently was very good at sports.

Part of the problem with school is that being a student doesnít fall into the expected gender roles of our boys. Sitting quietly, reading, writing about their feelings ó these are not things boys are good at, not just Latino boys.

Why is this so?

Some boys are very good at these things, like the boy I described aboveóthe one passing all his classes.

Clearly, in order for the majority of our boys, if they are going to read a book, it has to have some interesting content that appeals to their lives. It might have to be little bit ghetto (like the novel Iím writing). But it doesnít have to always star a gang member protagonist. Yes, I realize it isnít just Latino literature. In fact, all literature reflects the dark underbelly of human nature. When it comes to men, there are a lot of dark underbellies. We are a hairy, unreliable bunch of smokers and gamblers. We are degenerates, and the canon of white literature is filled with the fodder of drunken fathers as well.

But right now I am teaching To Kill a Mockingbird, which is about a well-adjusted little white girl with a father who is a moral powerhouse ó but this book is GOOD and the kids love it! What I really want to do is teach my Puente class a book like that, starring Mexicans.

Maybe you can help meóanyone out there have some books for our Latino boys that show them how to be a man without being a gang member first? Where is the Mexican Atticus Finch?

This post was originally published by New America Media.


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Photo from See-ming Lee via flickr


Agnes O.
Agnes O5 years ago

Bless me, Ultima is a wonderful book but it has some explicit language.

Jackie Agusta
Jackie Agusta5 years ago

Noted, thank you for sharing :-)

Sarah M.
Sarah M5 years ago

Here is a list of novels that you should check out. I read them a couple years back, but as I recall most of them have male protagonists and at least 1 or 2 emphasize the importance of education. Most focus on the plight of the Mexican-American farm worker and address issues of cultural identity (which teens can relate to today). I hope you read them if you have not already because they are worth it. Enjoy.

And the Earth Did Not Devour Him by Tomas Rivera
Bless Me, Ultima by Rudolfo Anaya
Burnt Honey by Antonio Arreguín Bermúdez (Not for kids)
Macho! by Victor Villaseñor
Pocho by Jose Villarreal
Under the Feet of Jesus by Helena Maria Viramontes

Aria C.
Aria Chiodo5 years ago

What about Marquez? Love in the Time Of Cholera, One Hundred Years of Solitude... all the characters are complex, interesting characters, male and female.

Ailsa Porter
Ailsa Porter5 years ago


Sue Matheson
Sue Matheson5 years ago


Dave C.
David C5 years ago

very interesting....my children both attended a spanish immersion school for several years and we hosted a Chilean woman as a guest teacher....she would really agree with this article....

Laurie D.
Laurie D5 years ago

I agree with Von -- people relate to people no matter the culture! Let's offer good literature and see if the stereotypes CHANGE!! (Worth a TRY, ISN'T IT???)

Von C.
Von D5 years ago

Why do you have to teach Latinos from stories aimed at them specifically? Literature is literature, it comes from all over the world. You seem to be saying they can only learn from books that have characters with the same skin color. You can find role models in strange places. Try teaching other material.

Magdalen B.
Magdalen B5 years ago

A few years ago, I taught "Mocking bird " to a class of 16 year olds. they loved it.So did I.